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WylieWord/Aro phonetics scheme.txt

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; Aro Gar phonetic rules for WylieWord.
; These rules attempt to capture the phonetic transcription scheme
; used by Ngak'chang Rinpoche. The results have not, however, yet
; been reviewed by Rinpoche, and probably differ from his intention
; in some ways.
; File format: there are two sections, for rules and exceptions.
; There is one rule per line. Typically a rule has two parts,
; separated by a space. The first part is a sequence of letters
; that, if it appears in a Wylie transliteration, is to be replaced
; by the second part in the phonetic transcription. The second
; part can be missing, in which case the first part is simply
; deleted from transcriptions when found.
; A semicolon precedes a comment. Blank lines are OK.
; The rules are applied in the order they appear in this file.
; Each rule is applied as many times as possible, but we never
; go back to a previous rule. (This simple rewrite-rule grammar is
; not sufficient to implement all phonetic schemes, at least not
; compactly. For example, it would be difficult to capture the
; effects of preinitial consonants on tone (as in the scheme used
; in Joe Wilson's book, for instance).) Also note that not even the
; whole of the present scheme is implemented using these rules. In
; particular, the deletion of prefix and superscript consonants,
; and of wa-zur, are done in program code, not using the rules here.
; Miscellaneous prefix transformations
g. ; delete this (representing g prefix, used before root y only)
dby y ; must come before db->w, for dbyang
dbr r ; must come before db->w, for dbral
db w ; must come before by->j
; c and ch are both transcribed ch. To get this we need a kludge
; (involving x), because the rule c -> ch would apply recursively.
ch c
c x
x ch
; Bad behavior from Y
py ch
phy ch
by j
my ny
; Retroflexes
kr tr
khr thr
gr dr
pr tr
phr thr
br dr
; Other bad behavior from R
mr m
nr n
sr s
; Uniquely random case
zl d
; Vowel transformations
; Note: this must be done before suffix-stripping.
; Before actually doing the transformations, we "hide" the n in ng, so that ng doesn't
; induce umlaut. This is gross; if we had a real grammar engine it wouldn't
; be necessary.
ng x
; Transformations of e: short before g, m, n; long otherwise
eg <EFBFBD>g
em <EFBFBD>m
en <EFBFBD>n
; Umlaut of a, o, u followed by d, n, l, s
ad <EFBFBD>d
an <EFBFBD>n
al <EFBFBD>l
od <EFBFBD>d
on <EFBFBD>n
ol <EFBFBD>l
ud <EFBFBD>d
un <EFBFBD>n
ul <EFBFBD>l
; restore ng
x ng
; There is one exception per line. Each exception consists of
; the transliteration (which may be several syllables separated
; by spaces), followed by a space, a colon, a space, and the
; pronunciation (which may also contain spaces). A semicolon
; precedes a comment. Blank lines are OK.
rdo rje > dorj<EFBFBD>
mkha' 'gro > khandro
sku mnye > kumny<EFBFBD>
sprul sku > tulku
mtsho rgyal > tsogy<EFBFBD>l
rta mgrin> tamdrin
dga' ldan > ganden
dge 'dun > gend<EFBFBD>n
a mdo > amdo
srid pa > sipa
pad ma > p<EFBFBD>ma